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Peter Philippson-Gestalt Therapy_ Roots and Branches - Collected Papers-Karnac Books (2012)
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Oxford Guide to Imagery in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haggett, B. Halling, S. Hargaden, H. Building resilience: The role of firm boundaries and the Third in relational group therapy, Transactional Analysis Journal, 43 4 , Hart, T. The refinement of empathy, The Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 39 4 , — Transactional Analysis: A Relational Perspective.
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Jacobi, Ed. Jung, C. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Psychology and Alchemy Collected Works Princeton, N. Karpman, S. Fairy tales and script drama analysis, Transactional Analysis Bulletin , 7 26 , B A Game Free L ife. Kazantzis, N. Meta-analysis of homework effects in cognitive and behavioral therapy: A replication and extension, Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 17, Kelly, K.
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An outpatient treatment program for bulimia nervosa, International Journal of Eating Disorders , 2 4 , Lakoff, G. Metaphors we Live by. Lambert, M. Implications of outcome research for psychotherapy integration. Goldfried Eds. Lamprecht, L. Therapeutic letter writing as relationally responsive practice: Experiences of clients receiving letters during therapy. Lapworth, P. Leff, J. The London Depression Intervention Trial.
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Randomised control trial of antidepressants vs couple therapy in the treatment and maintenance for people with depression living with a critical partner: clinical outcome and costs, British Journal of Psychiatry, , Levine, J. Gestalt in the new age. Gestalt Therapy: Awareness in Theory and Practice. Lewin, K. Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers by Kurt Lewin D. Cartwright, Ed. London: Tavistock. Original publication Lingis , A. Contact: Tact and caress, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 38, 1—6. Linehan, M.
Cognitive-behavioural T reat ment of Borderline Personality D isorder. London: Guildford Press. Lopes, R. Narrative therapy vs cognitive-behavioral therapy for moderate depression: Empirical evidence from a controlled clinical trial, Psychotherapy Research, 24 6 , Luborsky, L. Singer, B. Comparative Studies of Psychotherapy: Is it true that everyone has won and all will have prizes? Main, M. In Greenberg, M. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Markin, R. Marx, J. Termination of individual counseling in a university counseling center, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, Masterson, J.
May, R. New York: Norton. McCullough, J. Norcross and M. McNeel, J. The parent interview, Transactional Analysis Journal , 6, McGown, L. Reaching into the relational unconscious: Integrating spontaneous mental imagery into clinical practice, The British Journal of Psychotherapy Integration , 10 2 , McGuire-Bouwman, K. Creative edge focusing. The parent interview, Transactional Analysis Journal, 6 1 , Mearns, D.
Working at Relational Depth in Counselling and P sychotherapy. Merleau-Ponty, M. The V isib le and the I nvisible A. Lingis, Trans.
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Messer, S. Insight in psychodynamic therapy: Theory and assessment. Miller, S. Outcome-informed clinical work. Using outcome to inform therapy practice, Journal of Brief Therapy, 5 1 , Why the field of therapy is on the verge of extinction and what we can do to save it. Zeig ed. Brief Therapy: Lasting impressions. Minuchin, K. Family Therapy Techniques. Boston: Harvard University Press. Mitchell, S. Relationality : From Attachment to I ntersubjectivity. Relational Psychoanalysis: The Emergence of a Tradition. Moreno, J. Moursund, J.
Integrative Psychotherapy: the Art and Science of R elationship. Murdin, L. H ow much is Enough? Nevis, E. Evocative and provocative modes of influence in the implementation of change, Gestalt Journal , 6 2 , Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care. London: Author.
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Susie Orbach on psychoanalysis. Serning Psychoanalytic perspectives on anger, The Psychotherapist, Issue 58, Orlinksy, D. Process and outcome in psychotherapy — noch einmal. Garfield Eds. New York: Wiley. Palmer, S. Integrative and Eclectic Counselling and Psychotherapy. Paul, S. A relational approach to therapy. In Palmer, S. London, Sage. Pearmain, R. London: Continuum. Pekarik, G. Perls, F. Piper, W. Prediction of dropping out in time-limited, interpretive individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36 2 : Pollio, H.
Polster, E. New York: Random House. Prochaska, J. The transtheoretical approach. Puddicombe, A. Get some Headspace: 10 minutes can make all the Difference. London: Hodder. Quintana, S.
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Termination in short-term counseling: Comparison of successful and unsuccessful cases, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, Rabu, M. We have travelled a long distance and sorted out the mess in drawers: Metaphors for moving towards the end in psychotherapy, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research , 13 1 , Racker, H. Transference and Countertransference. Rasussen, B. Metaphor in psychodynamic psychotherapy with borderline and non-borderline clients: A qualitative analysis, Psychotherapy , 33 4 , Reider, N. Metaphor as interpretation, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 53 , Robbins, B.
Roe, D. Rogers, C. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Romanyshyn, R. M irror and metaphor: Images and S tories of P sychological L ife. Pittsburgh, PA: Trivium. Rothschild, B. New York: W. Roubal, J. Gestalt therapy approach to diagnosis. Francesetti, M. Roubal Eds. Siracusa, Italy: Instituto di Gestalt. Towards a Research Tradition in Gestalt Therapy. Rowan, J. The transpersonal in psychotherapy and counselling. Inside out Issue Existential analysis and humanistic psychotherapy. Schneider, J. Pierson Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Subpersonalities : The People Inside Us.
Ruppert, F. Frome, Somerset: Green Balloons Publishing. Ryle, A. Chichester: John Wiley. Sartre, J. Being and N othingness Trans. Originally published in Schneider, K. Existential-integrative Psychotherapy: Guideposts to the Core of Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill. Schore, A. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
The S cience of th e Art of P sychotherapy. Seligman, M. Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions, American Psychologist, 60 5 , The first time I experienced sitting alone for four days and nights without food in the Australian bush irrevocably altered the course of my life.
All beliefs and self concepts I held dear were stretched to their limit and eventually dissolved, giving way to a direct meeting with wild nature which has soaked into my bones. This experience has since ignited a deep motivation to be part of a healing conversation between humans and the Earth. Ecotherapy is one such healing conversation that places the health of human beings and the natural world within a reciprocal relationship of growth Chalquist, The integrative practice of Ecotherapy seems to me the natural evolution of my studies in Gestalt Therapy, which I feel provide a supportive philosophical and methodological framework unto which the various methods of Ecotherapy can be applied.
It is my hope that through this literature review I can weave together an initial academic base to grow the practice of a Gestalt oriented eco- psychotherapy. This literature review is divided into four sections. The first section maps the historical evolution of Ecotherapy definitions and sets it apart from its underpinning interdisciplinary fields. The second section reviews some of the most common modalities of Ecotherapy that have been applied to the psychotherapy field by dividing the literature into active and passive methods. Out of all the psychotherapeutic approaches, Gestalt Therapy, with its emphasis on the phenomenological field and creative embodied approach, is a fertile ground for Ecotherapy practice.
Consequently, the third section introduces Gestalt Therapy. It details how field theory Wollants, and the phenomenological method Bloom, contextualise and augment the practice of Ecotherapy. The fourth section summarises the literature review and draws conclusions by commenting on the integration of the two fields. Ecotherapy: History and definitions Ecotherapy refers to a myriad of practices which lead to cycles of mutual healing between humans and nature Chalquist, It is the practical application of Ecopsychology Jordan, ; Joseph, Ecopsychology is a multidisciplinary field, a social movement, and an academic discipline which attempts to merge the fields of Ecology and Psychology Greenway, Theodore Roszak was the first to posit the term Ecopsychology giving voice to the counter cultural notion that our individual health and the health of the planet lay along a spectrum, part of the same entity Roszak, This set the foundations for a dialogue to occur between many psychologists, scientists, and academics as to how they would co create a more ecologically-based system Roszak, , Since that time psychologists have been calling for a re-visioning of the human psyche Fisher, ; Plotkin, The burgeoning of the Ecotherapy practice arises now in response to that call Frumkin, Although Ecopsychology is only a recent development in western psychology, since the beginning of humanity nature has been revered as healer, as is evidenced by the shamanic and medicinal cultures of Indigenous traditions the world over Hoelterhoff, The deepest roots of Ecotherapy draw from the wellspring of wisdom that these cultures provide Plotkin, It took a further 50 years until any serious research started.
Robert Greenway and Art Warmoth used the term psycho-ecology to describe the processes they underwent taking university students into the wilderness Clare, Around this time the school Project Nature Connect, progressed into one of the first working examples of the not yet termed Ecotherapy Scull Ecotherapy as it is now understood represents an emergent field of psychology which seeks to incorporate nature based practices and up to date evidence based methods into therapy Hasbach, The word Ecotherapy being first coined by Clinebell , relates a reciprocal form of healing whereby personal healing is initiated through mindful immersion in nature, which in turn empowers a person with an invigorated capacity to conserve the Earth Clinebell, This notion, that being immersed in a mindful contact with nature has a positive healing affect on the whole person-environment-field, is the basis of Ecotherapy Scott, ; Fisher, Today Ecotherapy practice is supported by a vast underlying theoretical web; Ecology, deep ecology, transpersonal psychology, Gaia theory, ecofeminism, and systems theory Hasbach, Ecotherapy being represented on the vertical axis, as an active expression of Ecopsychology.
Ecotherapy being supported by Ecopsychology as an embedded philosophy Scull, , p. There appears as many definitions of Ecotherapy as there are practitioners. Attempting to consolidate a core definition within the discipline is a current focus for practitioners in the field Aviles-Andrews, ; Berger, To support such work the following pragmatic definitions have been described. Ecotherapy describes diagnoses the current state of dis-ease within the Human Nature Relationship.
Reveals the pathologies we face as individuals as being interdependent upon the health of our wider environment. The second speaks to Ecotherapy as an applied Ecopsychology; being based on the broadening of self to include our environmental context. It emphasises working with the clients belonging to place through contact with nature, which in turn widens the clients sense of self to encompass the natural world Kenney, Another frame clarifies two types of Ecotherapy.
Ecotherapy is consistently framed across the literature to contain a triad of factors, the subject: the client, the provider: a human therapist and nature. Recently historical humanistic definitions of Ecotherapy seem to be integrating a scientific lexicon due to the birthing of the first international peer reviewed Ecopsychology journals in and Aviles-Andrews, Both relate a growing concern for the appropriation of scientific research methods into the ecotherapeutic approach Joseph, After researching the definitions within Ecotherapy literature, it has become evident that to advance the field into a more globally recognised arena, Ecotherapy has to clarify a workable universal definition and method Joseph, Ecotherapy: A Growing Field of Practice There is a diverse field of Ecotherapy modalities being used across the globe today in the treatment of mental health Jordan, Allied health workers including psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers are attempting to rewild the human psyche, drawing on a number of methods: Horticultural Therapy, Clatworthy et al.
Due to its multidisciplinary roots and its relative newness as a school of psychotherapy there is no standardised method for Ecotherapy practice Berger, ; Wahrborg, Ecotherapy courses are presented around the globe ranging from short courses to full bachelors and postgraduate degrees in Ecopsychology Chiu, Writers have expressed the complexity of creating a therapeutic framework which can encompass such a wide variety of nature based healing methods Wahrborg, The vast field of Ecotherapy practice based literature can be split into those that emphasise either active and passive participation methods Jordan, It is based on the theory that providing adequate challenge through environmental obstacles in a wilderness setting will help participants reorganise a healthy sense of self Willis, The field is dominated by the treatment protocols of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Transactional Analysis, and Family Therapy which measure outcomes such as self efficacy, Schoel et al.
Methods employed include group psychotherapy processes, ceremonial work, meditations and one to one counselling sessions Greenway, ; Plotkin, Throughout the literature there appears a division between a focus on the inner world of the participant and the unique healing affects of being outside engaged a dynamic exchange with the wilderness Jordan, More literature is needed which discusses the benefits of incorporating psychotherapeutic techniques explicitly into Wilderness Therapy treatment programs Berger, , Jordan, From the wilderness to specialised farms, ecotherapists are breaking new ground in providing accessible mental health services.
Horticultural Therapies are another active method of Ecotherapy being used across the globe as effective mental health treatment Clatworthy, et al. Utilising natural environments as an adjunct to mental health services has been used since the 19th century to benefit institutionalised care, predating most psychological treatment methods Wilson, Horticultural Therapy uses this research to its advantage and has proven itself to be beneficial in a range of rehabilitative and community settings. Clatworthy, et al. Techniques are based on incorporating acceptance and commitment therapy ACT within Permaculture gardening principles where occupational therapists, psychiatrists and gardeners work with clients to recover from work related stress Grahn et al.
Similarly to the group oriented active methods, a substantial list of studies have indicated the psychological health benefits of passive exposure to natural environments Fuller et al. The restorative effects of nature are now being translated into the psychotherapy office with therapists bringing nature into the room through nature based sense awareness practices Burns, ; Adams, ; Scull, Sense awareness activities and projective techniques are a more accessible means of re-sensitising the clients dissociative relationship with nature than active approaches Scull, ; Jordan, Contact with the concrete processes of nature through the five senses is shown to lead to a reduction in feelings of isolation to an increased tendency towards feelings of reciprocity and belonging Berger, ; Cahalan, ; Harris, A process which expands on traditional assessment procedures, it invites an awareness of the range of ways the client can be resourced through contact with nature Buzzel, Doing so clinicians have found that overwhelmingly, people find enjoyment in nature, and ironically not in common activities like watching TV Burns, Sense exploration is not limited to the wilderness and includes listening to buildings, natural disaster sites and community gardens Watkins, Sense awareness helps to "restore intentional human connection with particular places" Watkins, , p.
Similar to Horticultural and Wilderness therapies there is a dearth of literature which outlines a concrete empirically tested methodology via the use of an ecological sense awareness Clare, A second class of passive Ecotherapy interventions are projective techniques. Art Therapy using nature, metaphor and storytelling are projective methods which help to draw out the inner world of the client into a sensuous embodied relationship with the living world Berger, ; Rust, The ecopsychological tenet of nature as mirror, is common across the literature.
Plotkin, ; Jordan, ; Davis, Eco-dreamwork is another method based upon Jungian analysis, which is used to uncover the clients subjective feelings in relation to a broader ecological ground Rust, ; Prentice, A limited amount of research papers have been written which seek to investigate the efficacy of projective methods of Ecotherapy Harris, ; Roth, Researchers attempting to do so have stretched the traditional usage of the term transference, describing the clients projective relationship with nature Harris, ; Jordan, The investigation of transference processes through the research method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Smith, , has reframed the therapeutic environment as "a world which speaks" Merleau-Ponty, , p.
A development of the research into ecological transference in the practice of Ecotherapy would help to build academic credibility in this new field. A small number of Gestalt practitioners have responded by publishing pragmatic works for integrating an ecological awareness into Gestalt Therapy Roth, ; Swanson, ; Wymore, Gestalt Therapy is a growth oriented, phenomenological psychotherapy which aims to increase embodied awareness of our patterns of meeting with others and our world Levine, Gestalt presents a fertile philosophical and methodological ground on which to plant the practice of an eco-psychotherapy Roth, ; Singmaster, ; Swanson, This integration is seen across the literature to fall under two foundational tenets; field theory Burley, ; Lewin, ; Wollants, , and the phenomenological method Bloom, ; Philippson, This original contextual approach to Gestalt Therapy practice calls for the practitioner to integrate novel methods into a revised Gestalt, greater than the sum of its parts Latner, ; Perls et al.
There is a divide between writers who support a phenomenological field theory, Jacobs, ; McConville, b , and those who prefer a holistic situational field theory Burley, a; Latner, ; Parlett, Such an approach highlights the total biological field in which the therapeutic relationship is found.
This lens views the person as part of the totality of a situational co-arising field McConville, b; Wollants, In congruence with this integrative field perspective, contemporary Gestalt therapists working with nature have highlighted the need to include nature itself as a vital third in the therapeutic relationship Cahalan, ; Parlett, ; Wymore, An expanded biologically inclusive field theory supports the practice of eco-psychotherapy Adams, ; Russel, ; Singmaster, In training situations and individual therapy, therapists are encouraged to highlight the mutual codependent interactions of the clients behaviour within a biological field as a means to bring awareness to the global crisis of our time, climate change Russel, ; Kolmannskog, ; Philippson, In adolescent psychotherapy a Gestalt field theory has been applied to Wilderness Therapy programs de la Motte-Hall, ; Roth, ; Rudiger, , which have been noted to lack a robust theoretical framework Berger, ; Willis, This broader consideration of a Gestalt field theory sets up the practice of an ecologically inclusive phenomenological method Meara, Gestalt adapted the writings of phenomenologists such as Husserl and Merleau-Ponty and applied it to the psychotherapeutic domain Bloom, Gestalt Therapy provides a refined phenomenological method that can support a reciprocal, relationality of ecologically based awareness Adams, ; Meara, ; Robine, Phenomenological experiments of ecological grounding are seen to promote embodiment by enlivening the senses Cahalan, ; Roth, ; Swanson, The awareness of gravity or the sensation of contact while walking on the earth, the feeling of wind on skin, or the felt sensation of the flow of life sustaining oxygen present an eco- phenomenological method Cahalan, ; Creaven, Other accessible methods for incorporating sensual contact with nature is to bring it into the room by having an indoor plant, a bowl of water, or even a picture of a nature scene Russel, ; Spach, Phenomenologically based homework activities are common suggestions in the literature.
Adams, ; Swanson, ; Wymore, Activities like watching a sunset with a partner, or going to a favourite place in nature to spend time listening, brings the client into an awareness of enlivening support nature provides Swanson, But feeling my feet and legs wake up sure feels good. Gestalt authors working with adolescents and children note a sensuous embodied connection with the living ground of Earth is vital for the development of autonomy and self care Creaven, ; Roth, Across the literature all methods of eco-phenomenological inquiry promote embodiment, which in effect enhances capacity for compassionate action for the more than human community Adams, ; Cahalan ; Creaven, The first section laid out the varieties of definitions of Ecotherapy, presenting it as a distinct application of Ecopsychology.
Finding a unified definition of Ecotherapy was challenging due to a number of reasons; the vastness and newness of the field, lack of defined therapeutic goals, and lastly the counter cultural roots of Ecopsychology which resist systematic definition. The reviewed literature suggests a convergence of definitions by acknowledging Ecotherapy as a triadic relationship that includes nature not merely as a passive backdrop for psychotherapy but as a vital third in the therapeutic relationship. It is clear that a workable, universal definition of Ecotherapy and clear therapeutic goals could advance the field.
In the second section I consolidated the applications of Ecotherapy. Over the past 20 years the literature promoting Ecotherapy practice has bourgeoned, providing mostly qualitative case examples in academic journals and edited books. The therapeutic effects of mindful immersion in nature via active approaches has been demonstrated thoroughly, although more evidence based literature is needed to determine the efficacy of specific eco-psychotherapy methods.
A wealth of empirical research similarly supports the health benefits of passive exposure to nature, justifying the practice of taking psychotherapy outdoors. However, more literature is needed that outlines specific Ecotherapy techniques counsellors can use in everyday practice. Gestalt Therapy resides at a seminal juncture between the emergent field of Ecotherapy and mental health.
In response to this call only a handful of Gestalt therapists have written informative, pragmatic reflections on eco-psychotherapy Cahalan, ; Swanson, ; Wymore, Theoretically a field perspective provides a sound framework to contextualise the methods of Ecotherapy and reinstate Gestalt as a biologically-rooted therapy seeking to reunite organism and environment Adams, ; Levine, ; Meara, Practically, an eco-phenomenological method in some form or other reverberates through all of the Eco-Gestalt literature.
Divergently from how it is described in Ecotherapy discourse, in Gestalt Ecotherapy sensory awareness is not a passive process, but rather an embodied intercorporeality. As such, an eco-phenomenological method supports the central task of Gestalt Therapy: to heighten awareness through an embodied engagement with phenomenological processes at the contact boundary between self, other, environment Adams, ; Levine, The reviewed literature demonstrated that a sensual phenomenological awareness of the natural world promotes feelings of compassion and reciprocity Adams, ; Creaven, To conclude, both Ecotherapy and Gestalt Therapy are united by a shared horizon: healing through homecoming.
This is how Gestalt Therapy can make a difference on a radically deteriorating planet. The spell of the sensuous. New York, NY: Vintage. Adams, W. British Gestalt Journal, 24 1 , Intimate responsivity as essence-calling-path-fruition: Eco psycho logical ethics via Zen Buddhist phenomenology. Ecopsychology, phenomenology, and the environment pp. New York, NY: Springer. Annerstedt, M. Nature-assisted therapy: Systematic review of controlled and observational studies. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39, Apathy, M.
Beneath our feet: An exploration of the ways psychotherapists think about the human-nature relationship, and the clinical implications of this in Aotearoa-New Zealand Doctoral dissertation , Auckland, NZ: University of Technology. Aviles-Andrews, R. Ecopsychology: The last 21 years: A literature review of humanities and scientific research. Building a home in nature: An innovative framework for practice. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48 2 , Berger, R. Bloom, D. Gestalt Review, 13 2 , One good turn deserves another, and another, and another: Personal reflections.
Gestalt Review, 15 3 , Continuity and change: Gestalt Therapy now: the 10th biennial conference of the Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy. Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Bowman, C. Reconsidering holism in Gestalt Therapy: A bridge too far? Levine Ed. Gestalt Therapy: Advances in theory and practice. Brandt, E. Integrating Ecotherapy and art therapy to foster professional identity formation. Doctoral dissertation. The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health.
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Fisher, A. Radical Ecopsychology: Psychology in the service of life. Ecopsychology at the crossroads: Contesting the nature of a field. Ecopsychology, 5 3 , Frumkin, H. Building the science base: Ecopsychology meets clinical epidemiology. Kahn, H. Kahn, Jr. Hasbach, Eds. Ecopsychology: Science, totems, and the technological species pp. Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3 4 , — Gass, M.